Maestro Yury Temirkanov Grand Philharmonic Hall (established 1802)|
SCHEDULE for Maestro Yury Temirkanov Grand Philharmonic Hall (established 1802) 2017
A first-class acoustics hall, placing more than 1500 people,
since 40‘s of last century has become a centre of musical life
The famous musicians of 19th century performed there: F.List,
G.Berlioz, R.Vagner, G.Maler A.Rubinstein, K.Shuman, P.Viardo,
P.Sarasate and others. There were the first compositions of
Russian music classics: Borodin, Musorgsky, Chaikovsky, Rymsky-Korsakov,
A ceremonial opening of Petrograd philarmony was held on 12
June 1921. The first director E.Kuper - A talanted conductor
and perfect organizator - conducted the symphonic orchestra.
The concert programme was devoted to Creativity of P.I.Chaikovsky.
In a short time the philarmony provided various concert, musical
and lecturing and printing activity, that was assisted by its
library. The main performancing group was a symphonical orchestra
of the philarmony (now the Honoured group of Russia). During
half of the century (1938-1988) a talanted Russian conductor
E.A.Mravinsky directed this orchestra, and since 1988 the art
director and main conductor of the orchestra is J.H.Temirkanov,
one of the famous and bright modern conductors.
The repertoire of the philarmonic orchestra was enlarged with
national and foreign musical classical compositions and also
with the compositions of famous and outstanding composers of
20th century: Shenberg, Stravinsky, Bartok, Hindemit (all of
them performed in a Big Hall). The circle of artists on tour
was also widened. The famous modern musicians performed in a
Big Hall: O.Klemperer, B.Walter, E.Anserme, E.Kleiber, L.Stokolovsky,
A.Korto, A.Shnabel. Ar.Rubinstein, P.Gorovits, I.Menuhin, M.Rostropovich
etc. Boston, Philadelphia, Cleveland, Chicago orchestras; orchestras
of Berlin, Vienna, New York philarmonic societies, Amsterdam
orchestra "Concertgebau" performed at the stage of
a Big Hall. Here great fortunes started. The first performance
of "the First Symphony" of D.Shostakovich was on 12
May 1926. A great composer was applaused in this hall for many
years. In 30‘s he came from Moscow to premiers of his symphonies,
and now the Petersburg Philharmonic Society is one of the best
concert halls in Europe. To perform these is honoured and prestige.
Much has been changed in concert life of the hall, other names
decorate its posters, but it is " one of the best place
in the world" as it was said by famous literature critic
and artist Irakly Andronnikov.
German cultural heritage in Russia:
to the history of organ "Walcker"
in the grand hall of the Sankt-Petersburg philharmonic society
Entire history of the organ culture of Russia the 18th and 19th centuries was connected with S.- Petersburg, whose in a cultured way- political life always had European directivity. Many organs were established by the best German organostroitel‘nymi firms in Lutheran and Catholic tserkvyakh of city - in essence of German, which was unique phenomenon for orthodox Russia. In the S.- Petersburg conservatory, which was opened in 1862, Russia‘s first organ class was organized, one of its first students became P.I.Chaykovskiy. Occupations passed on the German organ of firm Walcker, the largest in Russia, in the main German church of petri -Kirxe, under the management of the German professors of G.Shtilya, L.Khomiliusa, Zh.Khandshina. Firm Walcker, then one of the good in the world, became into 19 - beginning 20 it was age-long by the basic supplier of the organs into S.- Petersburg and into Russia, many of which were the masterpieces of German romantic organostroyeniya. The same firm assembled in S.- Petersburg the first concert organs in Russia - in the halls of konservatorii (1897) and Midwife- gynaecological institute (1903), now the institute of midwifery and gynecology im. D.Otta. In this case the organ in the assembly hall of institute became the largest concert organ of city.
Unfortunately, the close in a cultured way- political connections of Petersburg with Germany were interrupted with the beginning in 1914 of the First World War. In the subsequent years the majority of organs in S.- Petersburg was destroyed. And only the transfer of organ from the Midwife- gynaecological institute in the large of the halls of philharmonic society in 1931 allowed it to avoid a similar lot. Today this is the unique preserved in Russia concert organ of firm Walcker as historical German concert organ generally. We are obliged by its appearance in the city to the director of Midwife- gynaecological institute Dmitriy Ott, to German on the origin. To the 100- anniversary of institute, in 1897, the question about the need for it for new large building came up. Helped the fact that among the patients of institute there was empress Aleksandr Fedorovna - wife of Nikolai II, also the German on the origin. As a result, was obtained the permission to the building of new building near Vasilyevskiy‘s pointer island. According to D.Otta, the organ in it was intended "for studying the influence of different combinations of acoustic waves on the sendings of human organism, being in this respect the most perfect physical apparatus. Organ - the most perfect musical tool and its use will become not entertainment for the patients, sometimes for a long time forced to find in the bed, but by the means of treatment and healing ". Because of the problems with the financing on the eve of the war with Japan the fate of organ project proved to be difficult, about which testify the materials of the highly affirmed construction commission, which invited the director of the organ factory of G.Val‘kera. According to the results of the inspection of the accomodation of the future assembly hall of institute it determined the dimensions of tool - 3 manuala, pedal, is not less than 48 registers, wooden housing- resonator (channel box) for entire organ (except pipes on its facade), which will make it possible with the aid of the mobile louvers to increase and to decrease the sound intensity of organ.
The latter was important, takeing into account the relatively small dimensions of hall in 500 places. According to the great-granddaughter of D.Otta, Ye.Shapovalovoy, saved the project the fact that the part of the money to the building of organ was presented by the successor of French crown along the line of Napoleon II, with which was familiar the wife of D.Otta Helen linevich. About this had to testify grant inscription and royal monogram on the housing of tool. Organ obtained 47 registers, 3 manuala, pedals, and during October of its 1903 the commission of the chief Petersburg organists was accepted. For using the organ in the medical practice inside it were placed the microphones, from which dispatch wires in the hospital chambers, where the parturients and recumbent patients could listen to organ music on the telephone. Institute had its exchange, and in the chambers it was established by 33 special tubes with the long handles. Furthermore, organ immediately became the leading concert organ of city, since in the hall of institute public concerts daily were arranged. In 1910 the organ was extended to 5 registers, which increased its concert possibilities.
Both the tradition of public concerts and the use of an organ in the medical practice interrupted after the revolution of 1917, and it ceased to sound. On the boundary of the 20th - the 30ths it is annual for special organ commission it was possible to transfer several valuable organs of the shut churches into different establishments of the culture of Leningrad, which miraculously saved them from the destruction. Organ from the obstetrical institute in the summer of 1931 transferred in the large of the halls of philharmonic society, and on 1 October, 1931, it renewed its concert life after the long interruption, when the professor of conservatory I.Braudo carried out the party of organ in the solemn prelude of R.Shtrausa with the symphonic orchestra. The first solo organ concert in the philharmonic society on 16 December, 1931, played well-known German organist Alfred sittard. In order to free more than place for the orchestra, in 1936 the organ was moved into the depths of the scene, panel was transferred to the center of tool and installed on the elevation.
They covered the dark oak housing of organ with white paint so that it would better correspond to the interior of hall. The mechanism, which governed the folds of the louver of overall wooden box, was opened, since sounding tool, calculated on comparatively small of halls of the institute of Ott, did not fill the large of the halls of philharmonic society by 1300 places. The technical state of tool began to deteriorate after war, and organ at the end of the 50th was annual even they wanted to dismantle, and pipes to send to the melting. Fortunately, because of the interference of well-known musicians, these plans not were realized. In the 60‘s on this organ appeared the world famous organists from Germany of Y.Keler, A.Veberzinke, K.Rikhter. Was formed the entire generation of listeners, who fell in love with the beautiful, soft, warm and noble sounding of this romantic tool. However, toward the end of the 60th the mechanisms of tool they were annual already strongly worn they required innovation repair. Czech firm "Riger- Closs", after obtaining order for the reconstruction of organ for purely political motives, proposed the project, which strongly changed the sonic means of tool. Unfortunately, it was affirmed by commission, which consisted of the Soviet organists of others it was municipal the country, each of whom attempted to change the disposition of organ in accordance with the personal tastes. As a result, in 1972 the tool was extended, many old registers of Val‘kera were substituted new, was changed intonirovka of the remained German pipes, part of them was cut, transposed in other places. A much larger quantity of pipes (64 registers) was set in the old volume of organ accomodation; therefore their sounding overlapped each other, and for eliminating even the small malfunction it was necessary to investigate the substantial parts of the tool, since access to them was hindered.
The historical facade of organ was destroyed, but new did not completely correspond to the architecture of hall. Panel was substituted to the new, the mobile, with the large deformed hose. The technical solutions already then were obsolete. To crown it all, new registers badly were combined with the old, creating impression, that in one organ live as immediately two different tools. After winning in the force of sounding, tool lost in its beauty, after becoming sharp and rather rough. Numerous technical problems soon appeared, and in the beginning of the 90th it was annual the state of tool it became catastrophic, separate notes and entire registers ceased to sound. Time itself confirmed that the organ was rekonstruirovan by Czech firm is extremely unsuccessfully both with the technical and from an artistic point of view.
In 1996 the well-known German restorer of K.Sheffler conducted the examination of organ, after proposing his restoration in the style of the romantic organ of Val‘kera so that the level of tool would correspond to the level of the leading concert hall of city. In connection with the 300- anniversary of S.- Petersburg, the government of Germany came out with the initiative of financing the restoration of organ as the main gift of Germany for the anniversary of city and contribution to the cause of the retention of German cultural heritage in Russia. It was necessary to restore the characteristic val‘kerovskoye romantic sounding of organ on the basis of disposition 1903/1910 annual with its small expansion in the spirit of Val‘kera so that the organ for its sizes and sounding would correspond to the parameters of the large hall of philharmonic society, and to also reconstruct the facade of organ for the preserved photographs and drawings. Technical side had to satisfy all contemporary requirements. Within the framework of the Continental Alliance the international tender, which won one of the best organostroitel‘nykh firms of Europe - "Yokhannes Klays" from Bonn, was carry ouied.
In the summer of 2003 organ was dismantled and exported into Bonn, where entire yr above it "conjured" the specialists of firm Klays. In the summer of 2004 organ returned and it was thoroughly installed and supply with sounied, having again found historical exterior view and noble sounding. The financial contribution of Germany composed 1.300.000 Euro-. The organizer of project became GTZ. into the expert group they entered the best German specialists, professor m.Bal‘tss and R.Menger, and from Russia - D.Zaretskiy, A.Panov and Yu.Prontsketis. The otrestavrirovannyy tool was solemnly opened on 14 January, 2005, in the presence of the Presidents of Russia and Germany V.V.Putina and Kh.Kelera.
The realization of project became sign phenomenon for Russia and Germany, by the recreation of interrelation system of two countries, which existed for a period it is more than of two centuries and, unfortunately, destroyed in 1914 for the first time in Saint Petersburg appeared high(ly)-class concert organ, one of the good not only in Russia, but also in Europe.
D.F.Zaretskiy, the organist of the S.- Petersburg philharmonic society
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SCHEDULE for Maestro Yury Temirkanov Grand Philharmonic Hall (established 1802) 2017
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09:55Grand Philharmonic Hall, St. Petersburg, Russia.